被物化到不相信改变的我们?

我们置身其中的生活,无时无刻不存在着各种各样的知识和规范,它们保证了某种秩序和稳定,却也不断制造出一些痼疾和偏见,像“女子本弱为母则刚”、“男生不能用粉色”、“八小时工作制会导致企业失去竞争力”……可是只要回溯历史发展,就会发现这些观点的“人造”的本质,以及代代传承和演变的脉络.

We live in it all the time without all kinds of knowledge and norms, which guarantee some order and stability, but also constantly create some chronic diseases and prejudices, such as "women are weak for their mothers but strong", "boys can not use pink", "eight-hour work system will lead to the loss of competitiveness of enterprises"... However, as long as we look back on the historical development, we will find the essence of the "man-made" ideas, as well as the context of succession and evolution from generation to generation.

在商品经济和科学主义异常发达的今天,我们惯于把人类现象当成事物来理解,赋予他们非人或者超人的地位,好像有史以来从来如此,而这就是我们今天要讨论的物化问题。物化就是将人类活动的产品当作非人类产品,如物理事实、自然规律或神意的体现。

In today's highly developed commodity economy and scientism, we are accustomed to understanding human phenomena as things, giving them inhuman or superhuman status, as if it had never been so in history, and this is the matter of materialization that we are discussing today. Physicalization is to treat the products of human activities as non-human products, such as physical facts, natural laws or manifestations of God.

物化是怎么产生的

How does physicochemistry come into being

物化现象表明,人会忘记自己是人类世界的创造者,并进一步忘记了创造者(人)与产品之间的辩证关系。显而易见,物化的世界是一个去人性的世界。人类在感受这个世界时就像在感受一种陌生事实。它仿佛是一个根本无法由人控制的外生事物,而不是源于人类自身创造性活动的内生事物。

Physical phenomenon shows that people will forget that they are the creators of the human world, and further forget the dialectical relationship between creators (people) and products. Obviously, the materialized world is a dehumanized world. Human beings feel the world as if they are experiencing a strange fact. It seems to be an exogenous thing that can not be controlled by human beings at all, rather than an endogenous thing derived from human creative activities.

一旦客观的社会世界建立起来,物化的发生就离我们不远了。社会世界具有客体性意味着人们把它当作外部事物来对待,然而关键问题在于,此时人类是否还能保有一种意识:尽管社会世界已经被客体化了,但它仍是由人所创造的,因而也能被人重新创造。换句话说,物化可谓客体化进程中的一种极端状态。在这种状态下,客体化的世界失去了它作为人类事业的可理解性。它被固定下来,成了一种非人的、无法人格化的、惰性的事实。

Once the objective social world is established, materialization is not far away from us. The objectivity of the social world means that people treat it as an external thing. However, the key question is whether human beings can retain a consciousness at this time: although the social world has been objectified, it is still created by human beings, and therefore can be recreated. In other words, materialization is an extreme state in the process of objectification. In this state, the objectified world loses its comprehensibility as a human cause. It is fixed and becomes an inhuman, impersonal and inert fact.

它造成的典型后果是,一个人和他所在世界的真实关系在意识中被倒转了。作为世界创造者的人被理解为世界的产品,人类活动则被理解为非人过程的附带现象。于是,人类的意义不再来自于一个生成的世界,而是来自于一个存在的世界,它是“事物本性”的产物。

The typical consequence is that the real relationship between a person and his world is reversed in consciousness. As creators of the world, people are understood as products of the world, while human activities are understood as incidental phenomena of human processes. Therefore, human meaning no longer comes from a generated world, but from an existing world, which is the product of "the nature of things".

需要强调的是,物化是意识的一种形式,更准确地说是人类世界在人那里的一种客观化形式。即便在物化的情况下,人也能继续生产世界,也就是说,人能够矛盾地创造出一种否定人自身的现实。

It needs to be emphasized that materialization is a form of consciousness, more accurately, an objective form of the human world. Even in the case of materialization, man can continue to produce the world, that is to say, man can contradictorily create a reality that negates man himself.

我们是怎样被物化到连自己都不相信改变的?

How are we materialized so that we don't believe in change?

如果仅把物化概念限定在知识分子的心智建构物上,那就会犯错误了。在普通人的意识中也存在着物化,而且这种物化在事实上更具实践意义。另外,如果我们将物化看成对社会世界的原始非物化理解的对立面,将其视为一种误入歧途的认知,那也不对。

If we confine the concept of materialization only to the intellectual's mental constructs, we will make mistakes. There is materialization in the consciousness of ordinary people, and this materialization is more practical in fact. In addition, if we regard materialization as the opposite of the original non-materialized understanding of the social world and regard it as a misguided cognition, that is not right.

相反,民族学和心理学的证据已经表明,无论是在物种发生学还是个体发生学的层次上,人类对于社会世界的理解都是高度物化的。这说明,要将物化理解为一种意识形式,至少需要在意识中先出现一种相对去物化的状态。无论在人类历史中还是个人生命中,这种状态都是较晚近时才出现的。

On the contrary, evidence from ethnology and psychology has shown that human understanding of the social world is highly materialized, both at the level of speciation and ontogenesis. This shows that in order to understand materialization as a form of consciousness, at least a relatively de-materialized state needs to appear first in consciousness. Whether in human history or in personal life, this state of affairs is relatively recent.

物化带来了什么后果

What are the consequences of materialization

整体的制度秩序和它的各个部分都有可能被人们以物化的方式理解。社会的整体秩序可以被想象成一个小宇宙,它是上帝按大宇宙的样子造出来的。无论“下面” 发生了什么,都只不过是“上面”所发生的事情的苍白投影,而对单个的具体制度也可以依同样的方式来理解。使制度发生物化的一个基本“秘方”是赋予制度一种独立于人类活动与意义的本体论地位,各种具体的物化都只是这一做法的变异。

The whole system order and its various parts may be understood in a materialized way. The whole order of society can be imagined as a small universe, which is created by God in the shape of the big universe. Whatever happens "below" is only a pale projection of what happens "above", and a single specific system can be understood in the same way. A basic "secret recipe" for the materialization of institutions is to endow institutions with an ontological status independent of human activities and meanings. All kinds of specific materialization are only variations of this practice.

婚姻可以被物化成对神创活动的模拟、自然规律的普世规定、生物学或心理学力量的必然后果,或者就像常听到的那种讲法,是社会系统的功能性要求。所有这些物化有一个共同点,即它们都没有认识到,婚姻乃是一种发展中的人类产物。不难看到,物化既能发生在理论层次,也能发生在前理论层次。

Marriage can be materialized into the simulation of divine creation, the universal rules of nature, the inevitable consequences of biological or psychological forces, or, as is often heard, the functional requirements of the social system. All these materializations have one thing in common, that is, they do not realize that marriage is a developing human product. It is not difficult to see that materialization can occur not only at the theoretical level, but also at the pre-theoretical level.

于是神秘的宗教启示者就可以编造一个非常复杂的理论,所涉问题从最具体的人类事务延伸到神圣宇宙最偏远的角落,而一对不识字的农民夫妻在结婚时则可能带着一种对形而上的力量的敬畏来“物化”地理解自己所做的事情。通过物化,制度世界看上去与自然世界融合了,制度世界变成了必需的和命定的。人们就这样生活在制度世界中,至于他们快乐还是不快乐,那是另外一码事。

The mysterious religious enlightenment can then fabricate a very complex theory, covering issues ranging from the most concrete human affairs to the most remote corners of the sacred universe, while a couple of literate peasant couples may "materialize" what they do when they get married with a fear of metaphysical power. Through materialization, the institutional world seems to be integrated with the natural world, and the institutional world becomes necessary and destined. People live in a system world like this. Whether they are happy or not is another matter.

制度的上述物化方式也适用于角色的物化。在自我意识中,那些已通过角色而被客观化的部分也会被视为一种无法避免的命运,这样个体就可以逃避一些责任。这种物化最典型的模式便是下面这种说法,“在这件事上我别无选择,我所处的位置(丈夫、父亲、将军、大主教、董事长、匪徒、刽子手,等等)决定了我必须这么做”。

The above-mentioned materialization of the system also applies to the materialization of roles. In self-consciousness, those parts that have been objectified through roles can also be regarded as an inevitable fate, so that individuals can escape some responsibilities. The most typical model of materialization is the statement that "I have no choice in this matter. My position (husband, father, general, archbishop, chairman, gangster, executioner, etc.) determines that I must do so".

可见,角色的物化会缩小个人在他自己与所扮演的角色之间所形成的主观距离。客观化意义上的那种距离依然被保留,但是由认同问题所造成的可能的主观距离就缩小到零了。到了最后,身份本身(说成是总体自我也无妨)就被物化了。这里包括一个人对自己身份的认同,也包括对他人身份的认同。此时个体就完全等同于社会所分配给他的类型,他不是别的而就是那种类型。

It can be seen that the materialization of the role will narrow the subjective distance between the individual and the role he plays. The distance in the objective sense is still retained, but the possible subjective distance caused by the problem of identity is reduced to zero. At the end of the day, identity itself (as a whole self) is materialized. This includes a person's identification with his or her own identity, as well as with other people's identity. At this time, the individual is totally equal to the type assigned to him by the society. He is not the other type, but that type.

从价值或情感的角度讲,这种对类型化的理解既有可能凸显出正面意味,也有可能凸显出负面意味。比如“犹太人”这种身份认同可能被物化为反闪族和犹太人自身,但后者是正面认同,前者是负面认同。这种类型原本是人类制造的,当它被内化的时候,也只是把自我的一部分客观化了,但是两种物化为这种社会类型赋予了本体和整体的地位。

From a value or emotional point of view, this understanding of typification may highlight both positive and negative implications. For example, the identity of "Jews" may be materialized into anti-Semitics and Jews themselves, but the latter is positive identity, while the former is negative identity. This type was originally made by human beings. When it was internalized, it only objectified a part of self, but two kinds of materialization gave the status of ontology and the whole to this type of society.

更进一步来看,正如前面所说的,从前理论层次到最复杂的理论层次都会出现物化,前者如“大家都了解的犹太人的事情”,后者则从生物学(“犹太血统” )、心理学(“犹太精神” )或形而上学(“以色列之谜” )的角度来定义一种“犹太性”。

Further, as mentioned above, materialization will occur from the former theoretical level to the most complex theoretical level, the former being "Jewish things that everyone knows", the latter defining a kind of "Jewishness" from the perspectives of biology ("Jewish lineage"), psychology ("Jewish spirit") or metaphysics ("the mystery of Israel").

对物化现象的分析非常重要,因为它有助于矫正普遍存在于理论思维中的,特别是存在于社会学思维中的物化倾向。它对知识社会学来讲尤其关键,因为它能防止后者陷入一种误区,即在人们所做与人们所想之间设定一种非辩证关系。

The analysis of materialization phenomenon is very important, because it helps to correct the materialization tendency that exists in theoretical thinking, especially in sociological thinking. It is especially critical for Sociology of knowledge, because it can prevent the latter from falling into a misunderstanding, that is, to set up a non-dialectical relationship between what people do and what they think.

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