If a country wants to develop its own chip industry

On May 16th, as one of the theme activities of the Western China International Investment and Trade Fair (referred to as the Western Fair), the "2019 China (Western)" Belt and Road 'Cross-Border Investment and Trade Matchmaking Meeting" was held at the Chongqing Yuelai International Conference Center. Held. The matchmaking meeting was co-sponsored by Chongqing Municipal People's Government and Bank of China, and co-organized by Chongqing Municipal Committee of Commerce and Bank of China Chongqing Branch. Lin Jingwei, deputy governor of the Bank of China, said at the matchmaking meeting that the bank has branches in 57 countries and regions, including 24 countries along the “Belt and Road”. Since 2014, the company has launched a cross-border cross-border service for small and medium-sized enterprises. Promote the integration of domestic and overseas enterprises into the global capital chain, value chain and industrial chain.

The matchmaking conference attracted 190 overseas companies from 22 countries and regions, 440 domestic companies from Chongqing and western provinces and cities. Wu Tao, deputy governor of Bank of China Chongqing Branch, introduced at the press conference that the matchmaking meeting started at 9:30 in the morning. As of 3 pm, four rounds and 650 rounds of talks had been held, and 223 cooperation intentions were reached. item.

“This matchmaking meeting is the 54th cross-border matchmaking meeting held by Bank of China in the world. It aims to strengthen international advantageous capacity cooperation, foster and expand Chongqing industrial and commercial enterprises and countries and regions along the “Belt and Road”, especially the Central European class. Exchanges and cooperation between enterprises in the countries along the line (Chongqing) and 'Luhai New Channel' will enhance the level of Chongqing's opening up and promote the development of Chongqing's radiation in the central and western regions." Wu Tao added, "This is the Chongqing Municipal People's Government and last year. Bank of China has signed a strategic cooperation agreement, which is to give full play to the important strategic fulcrum of Chongqing's western development, the location advantage of the 'Belt and Road' and the Yangtze River Economic Belt connection point, to help Chongqing's inland open highland construction, and promote Chongqing enterprises 'Going out' and 'bringing in'."

At present, 54 cross-border associations held by Bank of China have covered 108 countries and regions around the world. More than 30,000 Chinese and foreign companies have participated in cross-border cooperation and realized a series of business cooperation such as trade, investment and technology introduction. The registration company exceeded expectations. “From this recruitment point of view, the demand for cross-border cooperation is very strong, and the number of applicants has exceeded expectations.” Wu Tao said that it has attracted 190 foreign companies from 22 countries and regions, and Chongqing and 440 companies from the western provinces and cities signed up for cross-border mergers.

Among the enterprises registered in China, the number of small and medium-sized enterprises and private enterprises reached 313, accounting for more than 70%. Among them, there are 125 small-scale enterprises and 20 households in poverty alleviation enterprises. The industries involved in domestic registration companies mainly include electronic information, chemical medicine, materials, energy, equipment manufacturing, and automotive consumer goods. In order to facilitate the effective integration of Chinese and foreign companies participating in the conference, this matchmaking meeting not only provided a translator and a conference assistant at each negotiation table, but also set up a free negotiation area and produced the QR code of the participating enterprises. The QR code can understand the situation of the company and negotiate freely with the customers corresponding to the offer.

The reporter noticed that many companies that did not report to the West Conference were also invited to take photos and scan the QR code to facilitate contact and cooperation. The Bank of China's five-hour cross-border cooperation in the past five hours is a combination of the "Blind" six-step music. The accuracy and timeliness of such cross-border matching services, Wu Tao explained that there are usually six steps to match the "blind date". The first step is information sharing. Bank of China first collects information from domestic companies, establishes a database of information, cooperates with foreign bank chambers of commerce and related government cooperation agencies, and uses overseas Chinese banks as a bridge to obtain information on overseas companies.

The second step is customer matching, matching online and overseas enterprises according to the needs of the enterprise and the characteristics of the industry. The third step is the online “blind date” to allow matching customers to conduct preliminary video exchanges on the Internet to improve accuracy. The fourth step is on-site negotiation. The small and medium-sized enterprises with cooperation intentions will be concentrated. Everyone will come to the scene to "dating a blind date". The goals and problems in each other's minds are clearer and face-to-face communication. The fifth step is a field trip, which arranges overseas companies that have reached preliminary cooperation intentions to conduct on-the-spot investigations and promote the final cooperation between the two parties. This also reflects the wide-ranging advantages of the Bank of China's overseas institutions.

The sixth step is financial services. The Bank of China will provide a personalized, full-cycle series of services based on the business needs and characteristics of the various stages of the company, ensuring the effectiveness of cross-border cooperation. Wu Tao told the International Business Daily that the Chongqing Baoyu Knitwear Co., Ltd. in Yunyang County had achieved cooperation with Korean companies through the docking session. “This company was also implemented with the help of Bank of China Yunyang Branch in February this year. Local settlement of export business". At the end of the conference, 140 conference tables at the matchmaking meeting were still packed. The "matchmaker" of the Bank of China is a bit busy.

If a country wants to develop its own chip industry, on the basis of insisting that military-grade chips are based on me, it is impossible to develop commercial-grade chips. It is not necessary to require all chips to be developed and produced by themselves. In fact, having core technology or unique technology in some areas is the key.

"In the past, the United States could be calm, because no country can achieve its combination of technical capabilities and actual scale. But the years have passed, and now China has this ability." For the "Huawei incident," Venezuelan diplomat Alf Redo Toro Hadi once explained in the article "Technology Competition in Great Powers" that when the United States went to "strategic rather than strategic" to cut off the supply of technology to a country, it is often the gap that narrowed to The degree of shoulders.

Over the past year or so, the United States has successively adopted "chip-off supply" measures for Chinese companies such as ZTE, Fujian Jinhua, and Huawei. The result is that China has not been beaten, but has accelerated China's technology catch-up. Decryption | The global chip battle behind Huawei (in-depth text) We must be able to survive from the technical constraints of Huawei and even the entire Chinese high-tech industry, the chip seems to be the best "cut." As the "heart" of high-speed communication and artificial intelligence technology, the chip has long been China's weak point. In the latest chip sales list of IC Insights, an internationally renowned research company, in the 2018, the top 15 are the United States, South Korea, and Taiwan. European and Japanese companies, high-end chips are basically dependent on imports, and China spends more money in this area than imported oil.

Ren Zhengfei, the founder of Huawei, once said: "The gap between China and the United States is estimated to be impossible to eliminate in the next two or three decades, or even five or sixty years. However, we must narrow the gap to 'we want to survive'." Turn into action. At the IFA2018 International Consumer Electronics Show in Berlin, Yu Chengdong, CEO of Huawei's consumer business, released the "Kylin 980", a proprietary intellectual property chip for smartphones. The applause on the field, using the world's most advanced 7-nanometer integrated circuit technology, dramatically Improve the machine learning and image processing capabilities of artificial intelligence while significantly reducing power consumption.

Two months later, Huawei’s rotating CEO Xu Zhijun told the audience of 2,000 people in a huge showroom in Shanghai: “This is the highest performing chip in the world.” The screen shows a more advanced artificial intelligence chip – The Shengteng 910 is currently the world's largest single-chip computing density chip with twice the computing power of NVIDIA's products of the same class. More powerfully, on May 17, 2019, He Tingbo, president of the chip company Hisilicon, released a letter of enthusiasm for employees, mentioning that the self-developed chip "turned from the spare tire" to become the biggest strength of Huawei.

The key point is that the modern society of the lithography machine is highly informationized, and the most powerful "national heavy weapon", most of which support chips with small size and weight. Without it, it will not be automated, and most of the equipment will Failure... The chip is a general term for semiconductor components and refers to silicon wafers containing integrated circuits. To manufacture high-end chips, you must first have high-end processing equipment. In this respect, the world presents a highly monopolistic situation. For example, the lithography machine is a key device for the production of integrated circuits, but the global high-end lithography machine is almost monopolized by the Dutch ASML. The global 14-nanometer lithography machine is an ASML product with an annual output of only 24 units and a unit price of $150 million.

The chip giants such as Intel, TSMC, Samsung Electronics, etc., are able to produce high-end chips, which is the high-end lithography machine of ASML. The reason is very simple. All three are ASML shareholders. However, chip manufacturers in other countries and regions are difficult to obtain high-end lithography machines, and even Wanjin is hard to find, and they are not sold at a large price.

Even if you buy a relatively outdated second-hand lithography machine, you need a US nod, because the United States is the Wassenaar Agreement on Export Control of Conventional Weapons and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies (the Wassenaar Agreement), which currently includes the United States, 40 member countries such as Japan, the United Kingdom, and Russia. The purpose is to strengthen the supervision and control of conventional weapons and dual-use items and related technology transfer through the information communication system among member states. It usually attaches harsh conditions. It cannot be used to produce military-grade chips and self-developed chips.

The difficulty of chip production, as well as the design layout, the cost of trial and error is high, and the difficulty of troubleshooting is large. Very large-scale integrated circuit chips, often have a large area of ​​fingernails with hundreds of millions of transistors, but the signal lines that can be measured on the board are only a dozen to hundreds. It is self-evident that it is difficult to judge which transistor has a problem based on these poor information.

It takes at least half a year for the chip to start from the circuit design to the filming. It takes three months for the film to be sent to the factory for processing. The cost of a single filming needs at least several hundred thousand yuan, and the advanced technology is as high as 10 million to several tens of millions of dollars. Such a high trial and error time and capital cost require a high success rate, and any one of the design teams Wrong, it is possible that the chips that were produced in a few months are just scrap metal.

Three types of chips, China is not afraid to be divided according to the industry, the chips are divided into commercial, industrial, military and aerospace. In terms of importance, each level of chip can be divided into four levels: general, important, critical, and core. Consumer-grade electronic products of course use commercial-grade chips, which are very different from military-grade chips that are related to national security. The latter have low performance and process requirements, but they are resistant to stability, reliability, electromagnetic and complex geomagnetic environment. The requirements for impact resistance and ambient temperature are extremely high.

Even in the United States, where semiconductor technology is leading, the performance of military-grade chips is far from that of commercial-grade chips. Due to the low performance requirements of military-grade chips, although China does not have high-end processing equipment, it can still meet the needs of producing military-grade chips with a slightly lower-end processing equipment. It is nothing more than a larger chip size and higher energy consumption. The appearance is a bit worse. Although this chip is not competitive in the civilian market, there is no commercial competition for military use, so it can guarantee the safe supply of military chips and achieve self-sufficiency. According to public information, in the field of military chips, China has largely achieved localization, which is the main reason why all kinds of domestic radars have reached the world's top level in terms of technical performance.

Since the military chips at the core level will not be clamped by developed countries, the production of military chips at the general, important, and critical levels is even more important. Such as the general level of resistance capacitors, there is no problem in domestic production, that is, space-grade tantalum capacitors can also be produced in China. The reason why these levels of chips are still imported, mainly because of the huge production and sales volume of similar products abroad, the lower price, and not belonging to the sensitive products controlled by the export, and the resistance capacitor does not exist, the CPU may have a back door. Hidden dangers, so there is no risk of breach of supply and no information security risks. When it comes to price, military-grade chips are not sensitive to price because their demand is far less than that of commercial grade. Moreover, because the importance of national defense security cannot be overemphasized, relatively speaking, cost is not a very important consideration, so countries are able to be as independent as possible for military-grade chips. However, commercial-grade chips are very price sensitive, and in the case of similar performance, the price is the price.

Obviously, the real gap between China and the chip powerhouse is mainly on commercial-grade chips. It emphasizes performance and technology, and emphasizes appearance and price. These are the shortcomings of China. The reason why the United States has a leading position in chip technology is because it starts early, invests heavily and lasts, from research and development to fast-moving markets, and high market recognition.

The idea of ​​developing chips in the United States is: as long as you master the core and most of the key layer component design and production capabilities, as well as the system design and integration capabilities, you have mastered the lifeblood of this product, and do not pursue 100% localization. Objectively Can't do it either. Because of this, the United States is both a chip exporting country and a large number of foreign buyers.

Therefore, if a country wants to develop its own chip industry, on the basis of insisting that military-grade chips are based on me, it is impossible to develop commercial-grade chips. It is not necessary to require all chips to be developed and produced by themselves. In fact, in some It is the key to having your own core technology or unique technology in the field. Ricky Abrams, an analyst at Credit Suisse in Taipei, believes that there are two trends in the application of new technologies in the semiconductor industry: first, the general-purpose chip has been redesigned and optimized for specific tasks; The original independent processing and memory functions are integrated into one chip.

He pointed out that this will bring "fundamental changes" to the semiconductor industry and will create new opportunities for China's semiconductor industry to enhance its sense of existence. For decades, the chip industry has been driven by Moore's Law, according to which the performance of a particular size chip doubles every two years. But the law is reaching its physical limits, semiconductor companies have spent decades rushing to double the number of transistors, and the difficulty of design layout and microfabrication in a very small area has risen geometrically, which is new for quantum computing. The “new dimension application” of concepts and new technologies opens the way, and this is precisely China’s strength.

Abrams speculated that in the long run, the US ban on chips in China is futile. "This will undoubtedly slow down the opponent's speed, but China's progress cannot be stopped. Just as the rise of Silicon Valley depends on the support of the US government. Similarly, China integrates national and corporate resources to achieve its goals. It develops incentive programs to attract engineering talent from other places. In 2015, the United States prevented Intel chip exports from stimulating China to develop a stronger supercomputing industry. Now Huawei is Becoming a new case of 'forced innovation stimulus'." He believes that the United States will eventually turn to the "smarter" rules of the game: on the one hand, foster domestic innovation, more government funds into the field of chip research, increase the openness of the world's talent; on the other hand, accelerate the formation of alliances with allies or partner countries In preparation for "a world where Chinese chips are more popular," this means that the United States must develop international safety testing procedures and data processing standards in advance.